Sleep disorders can impact the quality of life and often co-occur with psychiatric conditions. Research has shown that HRQoL is reduced in patients with nonorganic sleep disorders.
A nonorganic sleep disorder is a disruption of your normal sleep-wake cycle that causes distress and problems functioning. They can cause symptoms such as trouble sleeping, sleepwalking, and nightmares.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
People have a natural 24-hour internal clock that synchronizes sleep, hormone production, and body temperature with light and darkness. When disrupted, circadian rhythms cause sleep disorders. To enhance daytime alertness and lessen the consequences of OSA-related sleep disruption, Modalert may be administered in conjunction.
Symptoms vary by condition, but common symptoms include trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness. Sleep disturbances can impact work productivity, concentration, and alertness and are associated with mood swings, high blood pressure, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and obesity.
Treatment options depend on the type of CRSD and its severity. Most treatments involve lifestyle and behavioral interventions such as regular sleep-wake patterns, avoiding naps, and reducing exposure to bright light early in the morning and late at night. Medications such as melatonin and melatonin receptor agonists are also used. Follow-up studies show that improved HRQoL and health status are maintained one year after a sleep laboratory investigation and appropriate treatment.
Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder
The internal sleep clock (circadian rhythm) in people with delayed sleep phase disorder is shifted by two hours or more compared to societal norms. Hence, they fall asleep later at night and wake up earlier in the morning. Children and adolescents with DSPD often describe themselves as “night owls.”
Symptoms include difficulty waking up in the morning, drowsiness during the day, irritability or impulsivity, depression and anxiety, and an inability to concentrate at work or school. They may also have problems with their gastrointestinal system and be dependent on caffeine, sedatives, or alcohol to get through the day. Armodafinil 150 works by stimulating certain parts of the brain that regulate wakefulness and alertness.
Research has shown that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is significantly reduced in people with DSPD. Studies of 51 sleep-disordered patients, including 31 with nonorganic DSPD and 20 with organic DSPD who were referred to a sleep laboratory for investigation and treatment, found that one year after being diagnosed and treated, HRQoL was much improved.
Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm
People with this disorder have a series of sleep and wake periods over 24 hours. This is similar to the way infants sleep. People with this disorder also nap a lot during the day. A sleep study is not needed to diagnose this condition.
The sleep-wake pattern of people with this disorder varies from minute to hour each day. This can be difficult for people with jobs or family obligations that rely on consistent schedules.
Researchers compared the percentage of time that Regular and Irregular sleepers spent asleep each day in 1-hour time bins (see figure below). The fitted peak of the sleep propensity rhythm was significantly later for Irregular sleepers. These individuals obtained more daytime compensatory sleep per week than Regular sleepers did.
Dreams that are threatening or frightening can cause the sleeper to wake up in a frightened state and may interfere with their ability to perform everyday tasks. Nightmares can also make underlying mental health conditions, such as anxiety or depression, worse.
Several studies have shown that the frequency of nightmares is related to the amount of stress in a person’s life. However, research on the etiology of nightmares is still in its early stages.
Psychodynamic therapy can help treat nightmares by addressing the underlying psychological issues. The effectiveness of these approaches has been demonstrated in case series. Changes in nightmare content have been correlated with the therapeutic progress of patients (Mellman, David, Bustamante, Torres, & Fins, 2001; Terr, 1983). Desensitization and exposure therapy can help reduce the frequency and intensity of nightmares.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by dream-enacting behaviors, including body movements and vocalizations. The movements range in severity from benign hand gestures to thrashing, punching, and kicking, often in response to fear- or violence-laden dreams. These episodes can result in injury to the person or bed partner and require medical attention.
Normally, muscle paralysis during REM sleep allows you to dream without moving. But in RBD, muscles aren’t paralyzed, and you may enact the actions of your dreams, increasing your risk of harming yourself or your bed partner.
RBD occurs in less than one percent of the general population and is primarily seen in men over 50. It’s more common in people taking certain antidepressants, and it can also be brought on by psychiatric disorders.